Sample Space vs Possible Outcomes

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  • What is the problem?
  • What are the general aims and the precise questions to be answered?
  • What will the study contribute to knowledge?
  • What is already known about the problem?
  • What study design will be used?
  • What are the advantages and disadvantages of this design?
  • Will an intervention be required?
  • What population will be studied?
  • Will a sample be necessary?
  • How will it be chosen?
  • What are the criteria for entry into the study?
  • How many participants are required?
  • What data are to be collected?
  • What are the variables of most interest?
  • What are the potential confounding variables?
  • How are the data to be collected?
  • Are the proposed methods reliable and valid?
  • Are appropriate quality assurance methods available?>
  • Who will collect the data?
  • How will the data be recorded?
  • What training will the observers need?
  • How will the data be processed and analyzed?
  • Is computerization necessary?
  • How will the data be entered?
  • What analyses are planned?
  • Who will analyze the data?
  • What tables and figures will be required?
  • Is the study ethical?
  • Which ethical committee will consider the protocol?
  • What information is required for the participants?
  • How will informed consent be obtained?
  • Will any of the participants need a referral?
  • How will this be arranged?
  • What follow-up will be required?
  • What is the timetable for the study?
  • Who is responsible for each of the steps?
  • Is a pilot study required?
  • If so, how many participants are required?
  • How long should the pilot study last?
  • Will the participants in the pilot study enter the main study?
  • How much will the study cost?
  • Where will the money come from?
  • What resources, apart from money, are required?
  • How will the results of the study be publicized?
  • How can the results and their public health implications best be communicated to the scientific community, decision-makers, and the general community?
  • Will a report and papers be written?
  • How will the participants obtain feedback?
  • How will the result be applied?

Observed Association

 

  • Could it be due to selection or measurement bias?
  • Could it be due to confounding?
  • Could it be a result change?
  • Could it be casual?
  • Apply guidelines and make a judgment

 

 

 


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