Business and Management Words Count

  1. Money paid to an employee for expenses incurred during the business.
  2.  A deduction from an invoice for a specific purpose, such as substandard quality of goods, late delivery, etc.
  3. A price reduction or rebate is given to a customer or intermediary on a large order or for some other specific reason.
  4. An agreed time used in *work measurement; is added to the basic in calculating the standard time for a particular job. These allowances provide time for rest, relaxation, and the workers’ personal needs (e.g., breaks, toilet).
  5. Promotional money is paid by manufacturers to retailers in return for an agreement to feature the manufacturer’s product in some way.
  6.  An allowance against tax.

An insurance policy covering personal possessions against many risks but not, of course, all risks. A policy of this kind does not list the risks covered; instead, it lists only the exclusions. Such wide cover often merits remarkably high *premiums and items covered on this basis often include jewelry, photographic or electronic equipment, and other values.

Shares distributed by *allotment to new shareholders (allottees).

A measure of the expected return on a particular share compared to the return on shares with a similar *beta coefficient. It identifies the *specific risk associated with a share as opposed to the *systematic risk associated with securities of the same class.

A market of the *London Stock Exchange that opened in June 1995 to replace the Unlisted Securities Market, with the object of following small growing companies to raise capital and have their shares traded in a market, without the expense of a full market listed. Since its formation, around three thousand smaller companies have traded their shares on this market and the number of institutions investing in them is increasing.

The position of an advertisement within a newspaper or magazine so is amongst editorial material.

A loan in which the repayment is made in more than one instalment.

The part of the value of an asset that has been written off; represents the *accumulated depreciation to date.

A schedule that summarizes the dates on which specified amounts must be paid in the repayment loan.

The annual equivalent *rate of return on a loan or investment in which the rate of interest specified is chargeable or payable more frequently than annually. Most investment institutions are now required by law to specify the APR when the interest intervals are more frequent than annual. Similarly, those charge cards that advertise monthly rates of interest (say, 29%) must state the equivalent APR; in this case, it would be [(1.02) -1] = 26%.  

The annual *rate of return on investment is calculated on the assumption that interest payments are reinvested at the yield rate.

A short-term plan that describes a company’s current situation, its objectives, strategy, action program, and budgets for the year ahead, together with the controls included in the plan.

An annual meeting of the shareholders of a company must be held every year; the meeting may not be more than 15 months apart. Shareholders must be given 21 days’ notice of the meeting, The usual business transacted at an AGM is the presentation of the directors, the fixing of their remuneration, and recommendations for the payment of dividends. Other businesses may be transacted if notice of it has been given to the shareholders.

An investor in a high-risk enterprise. Traditionally, the term was applied to the financial backers of stage productions but is now used increasingly for investors in e-business.

An annual publication of the *Office for National Statistics giving the UK industrial, vital, legal, and social statistics. It’s now available in both online and print versions.

Compare Monthly Digest of Statistics.

A *capital allowance available from April 2008. It enables a business to offset 100% of its capital expenditure in any one year against corporation tax, to a limit of £50.000. The allowance, which is available to businesses of any size or legal form, replaces the various *first-year allowances on specified * plans and machinery previously available to small and medium-sized companies. It cannot be claimed on non-commercial motor vehicles.

*Internet service providers form the basis of e-commerce websites by attracting traffic or providing credibility.

Includes the effecting of introductions of individuals wishing to obtain credit to persons carrying on the consumer-credit business.

Is the process by which a third party negotiates terms for the discharge of a debt due under consumer-credit agreements or consumer-hire agreements with the creditor or owner on behalf of the debtor or hirer. The latter may also pay a third party to take over an obligation to discharge a debtor to undertake any similar activity concerned with its liquidation.

Is the giving of advice (other than by the original creditor and certain others) to debtors or hirers about the liquidation of debts due under consumer credit agreements or consumer hire agreements.

A *work measurement technique enabling an estimate of the time required to carry out the elements of a job to be produced at a defined level of performance. this level is based on previous knowledge and *synthetic standard performance websites by attracting traffic or providing credibility.

Includes the effecting of introductions of individuals wishing to obtain credit to persons carrying on a consumer-credit business. 

A document must be filled with the *Registrar of Companies within seven months of the end of the relevant accounting period (ten months for private companies). Information required on the annual return includes the address of the registered office of the company and the names, addresses, nationality, and occupations of its directors and secretary: details of the share capital and shareholders must also be included. The *directors’ report must be annexed to the return, as must the *annual accounts (or *abbreviated accounts) and the * auditor’s report (unless exempt from statutory audit).

Contract in which a person pays a premium to an insurance company, usually in one lump sum, and in return receives periodic payments for an agreed period or for the rest of his or her life. An annuity has been described as the opposite of life insurance as the policyholder pays the lump sum and the insurer makes the regular payments. Annuities form the basis for private pensions in most developed countries.

The process by which a company applies to a stock exchange for its securities to be traded on that exchange. In obtaining the listing a company will be required to abide by the rule of the exchange. The advantage for a company in obtaining a listing is that it will be able to raise funds by issuing shares on the stock exchange and the marketability of the shares it issues will attract investors.

To date a document before the date on which it is drawn up. This is not necessarily illegal or improper. For instance, an ante-dated cheque is not in law invalid. Compare (Antedate to Post-date).

Characters are not usually included in a font or type, such as fractions or ornaments. Also called ‘peculiars’ or ‘pi characters’ (not to be confused with ‘pie’ type, which is accidentally mixed type).

A figure or letter that is smaller than the text size and aligned with the height of the capitals. Superior characters are distinct from superscript which appears above capital height. ‘Also called cock-up Figueres ‘, ‘cock-up letters’, ‘superior figures’ or ‘superior letters’.

Figures or letters that are smaller than the text size and raised the height of capital letters. Is distinct from ‘ superior character’ which is aligned with capital letter height.

Type for fractions. This comes in two parts, the upper bearing a number only, and the lower a numeral and a dividing line above it.

Typographical symbols representing dram, drop, gallon, grain, minim, of each, ounce, print, recipe, scruple, semi, signs, etc.

A system of marks is used to clarify the text and separate sentences.  

The character is available in a font other than those that appear on the keyboard, such as accent, symbols, etc., and which are accessed by combinations of keystrokes. 

The unit of type measurement used in Continental Europe, devised by Francois-Ambroise Didot in 1775. A Didot point measures 0.343mm (0.0148in), compared with the Anglo-American point of 0.35mm (0.013837in). Twelve Didot points are referred to as a ‘cicero’ or ‘Didot pica’. 

The adjustment of the space between adjacent type characters to optimize their appearance. Traditionally, kerned letters were those which physically overhung the metal body of the next character – particularly important in italic typefaces. The Roman versions of most metal fonts were designed so that they did not require kerning. Kerning should not be confused with ‘tracking’ which is the adjustment of the space over several adjacent characters. Also known as ‘mortising.

The basic unit of Anglo-American type measurement. In the past, no two printers could agree on a standard system of type measurement, therefore typecast in one foundry could not be mixed with that cast in another. However, in the mid-18th century, the French typographer Pierre Simon Fournier introduced a standard that he called a ‘point’. This was further developed but Francois-Ambroise Didot into a European standard (‘Didot Point’), although this was not adopted by either Britain or the US. The Anglo-American system divides one inch into 72 parts, each one a ‘point’ (mathematically, one point should equal 0.013889in but, in fact, it equals 0.013837in, with the result that 72 points equal only 0.996264in. The European Didot point equals 0.0148in and 12 of these for units measuring 0.1776in). There is no relationship between the Anglo-American point and the Didot point, and neither of them relates to metric measurement. The introduction of the computer as a design tool has established a new international system. However, on the computer one-point measures 0.013889in, and 72 points equal exactly one inch – no coincidence, then, that computer has a standard resolution of 72dpi.

A typographer’s and printer’s unit of linear measurement is equivalent to 12 points. One-inch compromises 6.0225 picas or 72.27 points. Computer applications, however, use the PostScript value of exactly six picas, or 72 points, to the inch. 

The width of a justified typeset line or column of text, traditionally measured in picas, points, Didot, or cicero’s but now commonly in inches and millimeters as well. Also referred to as ‘line length’.

The adjustment of space between type characters (from that allocated by the font designer) by kerning or by increasing or decreasing the tracking. 

A ‘blank’ (nonprinting) spacer piece is used singly or in multiples, to create the space in the text. Deriving from metal typesetting, which used graded units of size, a standard word space, called a ‘mid-space, measures one-quarter of a millimeter, although in computer applications it is sometimes possible to define this to your own preference. 

Any typeface of a suitable size for printing a body of text, usually in a range of 8pt 10 14pt. Also called ‘composition sizes.

A design found in decorative fonts of curving systems, leaves, and flowers, originally deriving from the Islamic ornamental depiction of the acanthus vine.

Originally, type characters were cut from the woodblock, and used for printing, and embossing. Nowadays, the term is used to describe large, gothic sans serif letterforms. 

Large display capitals engraved in wood characterized by stokes formed by stalk, leaf, and flower motifs. As distinct from ‘floriated’ initials – capitals set against a background of leaves and flowers.

A traditional decorative initial is incorporated into a larger design or tracery and appears at the start of a chapter.

A traditional term used to describe a typeface with characters of language not based on Roman letterforms – Hebrew or Arabic, for example.

Traditionally, the printing surface of any metal type character, but nowadays used as a series of family names for fonts with similar characteristics, such as ‘modern face’.

A ‘running script’ – that is lettering that is formed without raising pen from the paper. This style of writing developed into a script used, up until the early 16th century, for diplomatic and administrative documents and which, in turn, inspired the first italic typefaces. 

The characters were used for writing and printing the Russian and Bulgarian languages. 

The generic term for a group of display typefaces with heavy slab serif contrast in the thickness of strokes.

A type design in which the character is formed of outlines rather than a solid shape or, alternatively, a font ‘style’ option in many applications which renders just the outline of a font without filling it in, usually with appalling results.

A type character designed to be used only as the last letter in a word or line, usually incorporating some kind of decorative flourish (‘swash’).

A bold, fat typeface.

Decorative-type elements are used to make up panels with a pattern or border.

The complete set of characters of typeface design in all its sizes and style. A typical font family contains four initial fonts: roman, italic, bold, and bold italic. As distinct from a ‘typeface’ or ‘font’. Also known as ‘type family.

Originating from the word ‘found’ – as in ‘type foundry’ – a font is traditionally a complete set of type characters of the same design, style, and size. For example, 10 points Baskerville Old Style Italic is a font. On a computer, however, although each font is a unique design and style, any size can be rendered from a single font file. There are two formats: PostScript Type I, which comes in two parts – bitmapped screen fonts and outline ‘printer’ fonts; and TRUE type, in which each font is a single file.

Any type of design incorporating a white line. The line follows the outline of the character and is drawn inside its shape. Also called a ‘white-line black letter’.

A term is sometimes given to typefaces derived from letterforms common to Western European countries, especially those with heavy, wedge-shaped serifs.

Any draw or designed alphanumeric character whether used as a typeface or as a hand-drawn script.

Characters that are readable by a MICR machine.

Decorative black-letter capitals.

A typeface characterized by vertical stress, strong stroke contrast, and thin, unbracketed serifs – Bodoni and Walbaum, for example.

A design comprising interwoven characters, usually two or more.

A font in which the type characters all occupy the same width space (as on a typewriter), as distinct from proportionally spaced fonts, which are more common. ‘Courier’ is a monospaced font. Also called. ‘Fixed-width fonts’.

A type design characterized by its diagonal stress and sloped, bracketed serifs, for example, Garamond.

Fonts are used in some methods of optical character recognition, having character shapes that are both distinguishable by computers and readable by people. The most common OCR fonts are ‘OCR-A and OCR-B’, the latter designed by Adrian Frutiger. 

A type design in which the character is formed of outlines rather than a solid shape or, alternatively, a font ‘style’ option in many applications which renders just the outline of a font without filling it in, with appalling results. 

A traditional term for display sizes of typefaces, used for advertisements, catalogs, etc.

Generic description of type designs that lack the small extensions (serifs) at the ends of the main strokes of the letters, and which are usually without stroke contrast. Also called ‘lineal type‘.

A typeface designed to resemble handwriting.

A type of character filled with cross-hatched lines rather than a solid tone.

Characters are given a 3D appearance by heavily shaded areas beside the main strokes.

In certain types of designs, notably Egyptian, serifs are of the same thickness as the uprights.

Capital letters adapted from Roman lapidary capitals. They are thick and finished with wide, square serifs. Also known as ‘quadrata‘.

The method used by calligraphers to achieve and elaborate freehand embellishment without the use of guidelines. Perfect in 1065 by Jan Van Den Velde. Also referred to as ‘by command of hand‘. 

Traditional black or gothic letterforms.

A classification of typefaces that are neither old face nor modern, such as Baskerville and Fournier. 

Originally, an individual text character was cast in metal (called a ‘stamp’ by compositors), but lately any letter, numeral, or ornament draws in a vast variety of designs (each one a ‘font’).

The term (based on ‘face’ – the printing surface of a metal type character) describes a type design of any size, including weight variations on that design such as italic and condensed. Is distinct from a ‘type family’, which includes all related designs, and a ‘font’, which is one design of a single size, weight, and style. Thus ‘Baskerville’ is a Type family, whereas ‘Baskerville Bold’ is a typeface and ‘9pt Baskerville Bold Italic’ in a font.

A type design reflecting the rounded letterforms of the ‘majuscule’ (capital) script found in medieval manuscripts.

A style of typeface design that appeared in the 15th century, characterized by the wide set of lower-case letters and bold serifs.

Devised by Maximilien Vox in 1954, a method of classifying all typefaces, according to their visual characteristics, into ten categories. These are: ‘Humane‘, derivatives of Roman letters of the 15th century, sometimes called ‘Venetians’, such as Centaur and Cloister; ‘Garalde‘, old-face designs such as Bembo and Garamond; ‘Rèale‘, redesigns of old-faces (called ‘transitional’), such as Baskerville and Times Roman; ‘Didone‘, so-called ‘modern’ faces such as Bodoni and Walbaum; ‘Mecane‘, faces with even strokes and slab serifs, such as Rockwell and Lubalin Graph; ‘Linèale‘, all sans serif faces such Futura and Univers; ‘Incise‘, faces with a chiseled effect, ‘Script, calligraphic, copperplate scripts letters and also brush letters (as distinct from scripts) such as Albertus and Klang; ‘Fracture‘, black letter types such Fraktur and Old English.

An early description of the Roman Type was used to distinguish it from a black or gothic letterform.

Individually carved letterforms, a precursor of metal-based type.

The type used to set the main text of a book.

The art of writing, based on handwriting from Roman times and embracing such scripts as half-uncial, Carolingian, Chancery script, humanistic, and their derivatives. The word derives from Greek for ‘beautiful writing’.

The traditional method of generating type characters by using machines, fitted with a would or ‘Matrice’ (mat), would cast the type characters from hot molten metal. Type would either be cast as individual characters using a ‘Monotype’ machine or as complete lines (‘slugs’) using a ‘Linotype’ machine.

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